Leaflets and reports

Gait screening leaflet (download pdf)

Typical gaitSMART report (download pdf)

Clinical Studies Using the Gait Screening Products

 There are a number of studies and published papers that have been carried out using the gaitSMART system over the last 2 years.  Some of this work has been carried out under formal clinical trials procedures, with ethics approval in place.  Others have been in more of a general wellbeing environment, where consent has been obtained but ethics approval has not been sought.

Click here to go to the gaitSMART web site to gain access to the case studies.

Clinical trials – completed and on-going

Completed studies

Measurement of Knee Joint Angle Using An Inertia Measuring Unit And Its Use Clinically As An Outcome Measure
The results from our normal volunteers and study of the ambulatory knee device as an outcome measure for joint replacements are promising. The responsiveness of the device support the use of the device as an outcome measure in the clinic for ambulatory joint angle measurements. This will be a valuable objective assessment tool for the clinician and will not have bias. It is safe and easy to use, cheap, not time consuming and provides objective evidence to guide physiotherapy at the time of follow-up.  This was published by the LKC at the IMechE Conference on Knee Arthroplasty: Early intervention to revision, May 2009.

Kinematics of Lower Limb Segment Movement during Gait in a Healthy Population aged 18 to 97 using Inertial Measurement Units
This work was a study of the gait characteristics of 128 healthy people over the age bracket 18-97 and was carried out by the RNOH London.  The aim was to identify how gait parameters change with age. It also included the validation of the system against the optical gold standard. The work has been written up and submitted to a peer review journal.

Using information on how a person walks to keep them healthy and active
The measurement of the gait profile of a person using inertial measurement units provides objective data, enabling the gait cycle to be broken down and quantified.  The conclusion is that this new gait assessment could be used to help tailor an individual’s exercise regime, in order to keep them healthy and active. This oral presentation has been given at the IFA conference in Prague in June 2012.

Kinematics of lower limb segment movement during gait in a healthy population aged 18 to 97 using inertial measurement units
The gait cycle of healthy people has been characterised and the variability defined for a number of discrete variables.  An oral presentation was given at the WCAA in Scotland in August 2012 by the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital.

Analysis of how knee flexion characteristics can be used as an outcome assessment for knee  osteoarthritis
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in gait profile between patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy controls using inertial measurement units (IMUs).  An oral presentation will be given on this topic at the EORC in Holland in September by ETB.

Analysis of knee flexion characteristics and how they alter with the onset of knee osteoarthritis: A case control study
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in gait profile between patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy control and to create motion characteristics that will differentiate between them. The work was carried out jointly with the RNOH, APOSTherapy and ETB and has been written up and submitted to a peer review journal.  The published paper can be accessed here.

Outcome measures after knee replacement – defined using specific gait parameters
This study was carried to identify whether patients who had undergone knee replacement resumed a normal gait after one year.  This work will be presented at the British Orthopaedic Research Society conference in the UK in September by the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital.

On-going studies

Ankle fracture- How this affects an individual’s gait profile
This study is to ascertain how an ankle fracture affects a person’s gait and after treatment whether the patient resumes a normal gait profile.

The benefit of gait monitoring using inertial measurement units to assist in the diagnosis of knee injuries and monitoring the rehabilitation after treatment
This purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the diagnosis and rehabilitation process could be improved by monitoring the gait of the patient.  The work has been carried out by the London Knee Clinic.

Sports studies
These studies relate to the health and wellbeing of people of all ages.  It encompasses studies with sports teams and healthy individuals, including the elderly interested in their wellbeing.

gaitSMART – New technology to keep athletes available for competition
This article describes a new sensor based gait monitoring system that can be used by sports physiotherapists to monitor injured players during training.  It provides a brief background to the technology and then goes on to describe how it has been used by the head physiotherapist at the London Broncos.  The results from a 5 minute test every week support the adaptation of training sessions where necessary, with the result that players are available for match games.   This was published in Sportex, July 2012.

gaitSMART in football
A study is underway with a league team.  Players are monitored and the gait report provided weekly to the head physiotherapist and players.  The data is used to quantify the severity of specific problems for the different players.  Baseline data when fit is used as the individual player’s reference point.  This work will be published in 2013.

Studies on the elderly

Longitudinal study on elderly people attending an exercise class
This study was carried on elderly people attending a weekly exercise class.  The aim was to determine whether providing gait information to the elderly person and the teacher of the exercise class would improve their gait and hence prevent falls.  Data collected over 20 months demonstrates that it is an effective approach and gait profiles improved and falls were prevented.  This will be published in Asian Hospital Healthcare in late 2012.

ETB Internal Case Studies
ETB has produced a number of case studies:
Recovery after surgery to repair meniscus tear
Recovery after surgery for ACL reconstruction
The effect of a hyaluronan injection on knee kinematics
Longitudinal Case study of an elderly person who fell frequently
Longitudinal Case study of an elderly person following a stroke
Case study of a football player with an Achilles problem
Case study of a rugby player with knee osteoarthritis

Click here to go to the gaitSMART web site to gain access to the case studies.

RNOH – Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital
LKC – London Knee Clinic
IMechE – Institute of mechanical engineers
IFA – International Federation of Aging
WCAA –World Congress on Active Aging
ACL – Anterior cruciate ligament



European Medical Device Technology.

The Importance of Measuring Human Gait.

Click here to see the article.